This clear and elegantly
simplified explanation lovingly donated by Hikaru
A Newtype is basically the newly evolved human. Just like Homo Habilus or Homo Australopithecus eventually evolved into Homo Sapiens, the gundam world totally focuses on this thing we call evolution.
What a Newtype is, depends on the series. GENERALLY, in most shows Newtypes are those who can pilot the gundams. Piloting gundams requires advanced sensory. Such as GP02 of Gundam 0083, Stardust Memory. The gundam has a 360 view. To control it, ones' senses need to be more....intricate so to speak.
If we take if from the beginning, usually the 'Newtype' is just a speculation. And their status as a Newtype is established upon successful control of the gundam. In Kido Senshi Gundam (aka 0079) Amuro Rei just 'fell in' to the gundam and was able to start it up, and move it. NOW. Regular people cannot do that.
UC (universal Century) basically follows this pattern of whoever pilots
gundam is Newtype. But, for series that are not UC, it varies.
In Gundam Wing, the word Newtype was only used once by Howard who said
he believed Zechs was a Newtype which is why he repaired Wing for him.
While it is not really 'out there' about what
a newtype is in GW, you can pretty much take it for granted that it follows the old pattern and anyone who is able to pilot gundam is Newtype. For example, remember that guy who tried to pilot Zero and was killed by the system? He was not a Newtype, thus he couldn't use it. Now I know what you're thinking. Only Heero could pilot it right? Wrong. The others could do so too. And do it well. (as in they won't kill themselves) The only problem the other G-boys have with controlling the thing is to keep from losing themselves. Basically, the G-boys in Zero would equal berserk killing machine. (Like Quatre.) But nonetheless, they CAN pilot the thing.
If we go into other series such as Gundam X or Shining Gundam, again
the Newtype definition varies. In Gundam X it is those with telepathic
powers and can separate their senses so they can operate many things at
once. (such as the doll system) I believe in Shining Gundam, it is
those who can pilot the gundam. Not sure for that. In Nu Gundam,
DEFINATELY those who can pilot the thing is Newtype. Cause nobody
else can use the 'fin fannel'.
Tying it all together...
As you can see, the definition of "Newtype" has evolved and changed through the many Gundam series. For instance, it used to be all newtypes were born in space, but that's no longer a strict rule. Newtypes though have long been assigned powers of "rudimentary powers of empathy and telepathy - they can project their thoughts across space, and sense the presence of other human beings [occasionally other Newtypes]." See? That's where the spaceheart comes from.
Though differnt names have often been asssigned to the powers of Newtypes, Quatre's is kinda... well, the first specific one that not all Newtypes had- it's a detached quick with a name of it's own. Gundam W seems to straddle the time between all Newtypes having similar abilities and there being an assortment of gifts to pick and choose from. The newest Gundam series has fourteen I think...
For additional info please consult...
The Gundam Porject
At the very least, say it's not a stretch the G-boys could have other
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